CBSE Class 10 Economics
Ch-1 Understanding Economic Development HOTS
Social Economics CBSE Class 10 Understanding Economic Development HOTS
Q.1. Study the given data carefully, and answer the following questions : Some Comparative Data on Kerala, Punjab and Bihar :
1. Which state has the highest per capita income ?
2.Which state has the lowest per capita income ?
3.Which state has the highest literacy rate ?
4.Which state has the highest infant mortality rate ? Give one reason. [CBSE Sept. 2010,2011]
Ans. 1. Punjab : ? 60,746
2. Bihar : ? 16715
3. Kerala : 91%
4. Bihar : Because the state lacks health facilities.
Q.2. Study the given table carefully, and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table.
(a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is 1 for rural males and 2 for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend school, but that there are 3 who are currently not in school.
(b) It is clear from the table that 4 of the rural girls and 5 of the rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as 6 for rural females, and 7 for the rural males.
(c) This high level of illiteracy among 8 age group, even after more than 60 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also, we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by the year 1960.
Ans. (a) 1 – 52% ; 2 – 19% ; 3 – 35.5%
(b) 4 – 69% ; 5 – 36% ; 6 – 61% ; 7-32 %
Q.3. Compare India and Sri Lanka on the basis of any three indicators of the Human Development Index for 2004. [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2012]
Ans. (1) Per capita income : The per capita income of Sri Lanka is higher than that of India. The per capita income of India is about $ 3285, whereas it is around $ 5170 for Sri Lanka.
(2) Life expectancy at birth : Life expectancy at birth in Sri Lanka is also higher as compared to India. In Sri Lanka, the life expectancy is around 75.1 whereas in India it is about 65.8.
(3) Literacy rate : Literacy rate in Sri Lanka is also higher than India. It is 90.6 in Sri Lanka whereas it is 62.8 in India.
Q.4. Why are the countries of the Middle East not called ‘developed’ inspite of high per capita income ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) These are small countries.
(ii) The gap between rich and poor is very high,
(iii) Though per capita income in Middle East countries is very high but there is unequal distribution of wealth.
(iv) These countries have high per capita income due to oil production. So they have only one major source of income.
(v) The World Development Report brought out by the World Bank has excluded these countries from the list of developed countries.
Q.5. Highlight any three advantages of public facilities. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Public facilities is the cheapest way to
provide basic services collectively.
(ii) Most of the poor people survive only because of public facilities.
(iii) There are many services like police, education, transportation, etc., which become affordable only if they are part of public facilities.
Q.6. Why are public facilities needed for the development of the country ? Explain four public facilities. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]
Ans. Public facilities play very important role in the development of a country as these include education, health, transportation, banking which are the base for any kind of development.
(i) Education : Education is the most important public facility which is required both by the rich as well as the poor.
(ii) Public Distribution System (PDS) : Public distribution system is another important facility which plays an important role in providing food security to the people.
(iii) Transportation : Many transport facilities like railway, airways, waterways, banking become affordable only if they are provided collectively.
Q.7. Explain common, different and conflicting goals by giving appropriate examples. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Development goals may be common, different or conflicting.
(i) Common goals : There are some needs which are common to all like income, freedom, equality, security, respect, friendship, etc.
(ii) Different goals : Development or progress does not mean the same thing for every individual. Each individual has his own idea of development. For example, development for a farmer might be better irrigation facilities; for an unemployed youth it may mean better employment opportunities, etc.
(ii) Conflicting goals : What may be development for some, may become destruction for some others. For example, industrialists may want dams for electricity but such dams would displace the natives of the region.
Q.8. Mention any four aspects of comparison notions of development between different countries. [CBSE 2010, 14]
Explain three attributes for comparing nations development between different countries. [CBSE 2010]
What are the two basic criteria used for comparing an underdeveloped country with developed one ? [CBSE 2010]
Give examples to prove that there are other important developmental goals than income. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Development of a country can generally be determined by: per capita income; average literacy level; and health status of its people.
(i) Per Capita Income means average income
generated by each person in a given group of people. Its limitation is that it does not show the disparities among the people of the group. ‘
(ii) Amount of literacy achieved is also a measure of development. Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group. The more the people are educated, the more developed the group is.
(iii) Health indicators are Infant Mortality Rate, Birth Rate, etc. Lower the amount of Infant Mortality Rate, higher is the rate of people being healthy. ,
(iv) Net Attendance Ratio is also the indicator of economic development of a nation. It is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group,
(v) Life Expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. Higher the life expectancy at birth, higher is considered the development of a nation.
Q.9. How is BMI used to determine the undernourishment of a person ? Explain. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index or BMI.
(ii) In order to calculate, first of all the weight of the person in kg is taken. Then, the height in metres is measured. The weight is divided by the square of the height.
(ii) If this figure is less than 18.5, then the person would be considered undernourished. However, if this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight.
Q.10. What is the criterion to determine if adults are undernourished ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) The criterion to determine if adults are undernourished is Body Mass Index, popularly known as BMI.
(ii) In order to calculate it, first the weight of the person in kg is taken. Then, we take height in meters. The weight is divided by the square of the height.
(iii) If this figure is less than 18.5, then the person would be considered undernourished. However, if this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight.
Q.11. What is meant by ‘Overusing a Resource’ ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) ‘Overusing a Resource’ means more uses of the resource than it is replenished by the nature.
(ii) Let us consider groundwater. It is an example of renewable resources. These resources are replenished by nature. However, even these resources may be overused. In the case of groundwater, if we use more than what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resource.
(iii) This is what Indian states have done. For example, farmers of Punjab have overused the groundwater. This has lead to lowering of the water table.
Q.12. Explain the importance of sustainable development with reference to groundwater by giving example. [CBSE 2013]
What is meant by sustainable development ? Explain it by taking the case study of water. [CBSE 2011, 14]
Ans. (i) Sustainable development is the development of a country or world not only at present, but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.
(ii) For example, groundwater is a natural resource which is replenished by nature. People of a particular generation must use water in such a way that people of future generation may also be able to use groundwater. People should not overuse and degrade the quality of water so that water is exhausted or if it remains, it is contaminated to such an extent that it becomes unusable for people of future generations.
Q.13. “Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.” Justify the statement. [CBSE 2012, 14]
Ans. (i) Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state
boundaries. This issue is no longer a regional or national issue.
(ii) Our future is linked together. Sustainability of development is essential for all the mankind and it is our common responsibility to save the environment.
(iii) These days it is a matter of discussion among different countries of the world.
(iv) Global warming, acid rain, etc., are not to be controlled by one nation. It is a global matter of thinking and finding the solutions.
Q.14. Explain the term ‘Development’. How is it linked with sustainability ? Explain with example. [CBSE 2012, 14]
Ans. (i) Development is a process which has a notion of going further up and improving the quality of life.
(ii) It is linked to sustainability since it has to be maintained for future generations.
(iii) Resources need to be used wisely so that they can be replenished.
(iv) Overuse of resources exhaust them. For example, petroleum.
(v) If development is not sustainable, it will give rise to environmental degradation and become a global problem.